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  • AG957 receptor In an attempt to complete the overview of

    2023-12-06

    In an attempt to complete the overview of resistance mechanisms in Spanish codling moth populations, the aims of the present work were to assess the actual occurrence of AChE and kdr mutations in codling moth field populations from different pome fruit-growing areas of Spain, concurrently with the frequency of moths with PSMO enhanced activity (R-PSMO).
    Materials and methods
    Results
    Discussion
    Conclusions Codling moth field populations from the Ebro Valley (Catalonia and Aragon), which was the area most sampled, exhibited a wide range of defence responses to insecticide applications, as evidenced by the high frequency of insects with enhanced PSMO and the two identified target-site mutations, kdr and AChE. In contrast, the field populations from Asturias did not present any of these mechanisms. Ebro Valley is the only area globally with an extensive distribution of the codling moth AChE mutation. In the past, other areas of apple production have also received intensive insecticide treatments with organophosphates and carbamates to control the pest but genetic mutations have not been detected, perhaps because they have not been researched sufficiently intensively. The rapid increase in molecular biological information will probably lead to the discovery of as yet unidentified mutations in the most important pest species, the codling moth among them. Studies on the genetic structure of the codling moth's Spanish field populations are needed to investigate the possibility of different codling moth origins in the different Spanish regions, so as to explain the presence of the AChE mutation in just one area, and also to explore the variability of AG957 receptor costs in the field populations, as dependent upon the geographical origin, the management system and the resistance mechanisms activated.
    Acknowledgements The authors thank the fruit growers and pest control advisors of the different Spanish apple-growing areas for their help in accessing and identifying apple orchards and Mónica Pérez for her technical help. This work was funded by grant Fondo de Desarrollo Científico y Tecnológico, FONDECYT 11130599 (CONICYT), Chile, to M.A. Rodríguez, by grant AGL2013-49164 of the Spanish Ministry for Science and Innovation, to J. Avilla and D. Bosch, and by the CERCA Programme/Generalitat de Catalunya.
    Introduction Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disease and accounting for approximately 50% of all types of dementia in elderly people [1], [2]. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChEI) have been approved for the treatment of AD in the United States and some European countries [3], [4], [5]. For the adverse side effects of marketed drugs [6], the potential acetylcholinesterase(AChE) inhibitors from natural products have attracted considerable interest for treating Alzheimer’s disease [7]. Coptidis Rhizoma (the dried roots of Coptis chinensis Franch) is known for ‘Huang Lian’ and used in the treatment of various diseases in traditional Chinese medicine(TCM), with the effects of clearing heat, drying up dampness, purging toxicosis, and detoxicification [8], [9]. Modern study indicated that Coptidis Rhizoma hold a number of alkaloids, and known to exert a variety of activities including anti-inflammatory [10], anti-diabetic [11], antioxidant effects [11], [12] and anti-AD effects [12]. The conventional strategy for the isolation and purification of bioactive compounds from natural products is time-consuming, labor-intensive, and expensive process [13], [14]. In vitro assay based on microplate reader had been used for the screening of bioactive compounds from combinatorial libraries or evaluate the activity for the extract of TCMs. However, this method couldn't give structure information of the active compounds and required multiple-step isolations for the structure elucidation [14], [15]. Ultrafiltration combined with high performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry(UF-HPLC-MS) was developed recently for the rapid screening and identification of bioactive compounds from complex mixtures, such as combinatorial libraries and natural product extracts [16], [17], [18], [19]. This technique has some advantages, such as fast speed, easy operation, high sensitivity and high reliability [20], [21], [22], [23] and it has been successfully applied for screening potential ligands from TCMs [15], [24], [25], [26].